Hospice and Palliative Medicine
A specialist in hospice and palliative medicine uses special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs of both patients and families.
A specialist in neuroradiology diagnoses and treats disorders of the brain, sinuses, spine, spinal cord, neck, and the central nervous system, such as aging and degenerative diseases, seizure disorders, cancer, stroke, cerebrovascular diseases, and trauma. Imaging commonly used in neuroradiology includes angiography, myelography, interventional techniques, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two additional years—one year of a fellowship and one year of practice or additional approved training—are required.
A specialist in nuclear radiology is one who administers tracer quantities of radionuclides (radiopharmaceuticals) to create diagnostic images and gather physiological data to diagnose and treat a wide range of benign and malignant conditions in adults and children. Imaging modalities include gamma cameras, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT).
A specialist in pain medicine provides care for patients with acute, chronic, and/or cancer pain in both inpatient and outpatient settings while coordinating patient care needs with other specialists. One additional year of fellowship training is required.